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The Research Files were a series of articles on Fox's official website, that expanded upon concepts shown in each episode of the 24 and detailed how they compared to reality.
A tranquilizer gun was used by Jack Bauer to neutralise George Mason in his office. The file describes how they are non-lethal, non-combat weapons which fire iron anaesthetic darts powered by a pneumatic pump. It mentions that they are not effective against strong opponents or if shot into meaty parts of the body and are commonly used to inject animals.
A homing device was used by Bridgit to locate Martin Belkin’s ID in the Mojave Desert. The file describes how the device seen in the show is fictional, but the science exists to create it. It explains how cell phones will soon have the technology to locate a user in proximity to a base station and a Swedish company will soon release software to allow consumers to utilise this function.
An optical scanner was used by Jack Bauer to scan an assassin's thumb for identification. The file explains that scanners work by digitizing images of text or illustrations and dividing them into grids of boxes to put them in a form a computer can use. It also mentions smaller, handheld scanners on the market and that Jack's flatbed scanner works like a copy machine.
Encryption was used to secure the information on the key card that Jack had Jamey Farrell decrypt. The file describes how encryption works and explains concerns raised over the ability to encrypt criminal activities such as child pornography or espionage, as well as presenting the counter arguments in favour of privacy and e-commerce security.
Nina Myers set up a phone tap to listen into the call between Ira Gaines and Greg Penticoff. The file gives the background on the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act of 1994, explaining how phone taps work within the law and the steps that law enforcement must take to justify using this technology.
A microtransmitter telephone was given to Jack by Ira Gaines so they could communicate discreetly. The file explains that devices with talking and listening capabilities are not available currently, but the Japanese company NTT DoCoMo's Media Computing Lab is working on the "Whisper" which is predicted to be released in 2005.
Jack gave Nina a flak jacket before removing her from CTU and shooting her on the orders of Ira Gaines. The file establishes the history of body armor from the 1920s onwards, explaining polymer materials and the development of Kevlar by Stephanie Kwolek. It goes on to describe other uses for Kevlar.
Jamey Farrell used a wireless handheld device to communicate with Ira Gaines from within CTU. The file describes how they can be used for two-way text messaging and wireless internet, and then talks about the Handspring Treo and the Motorola PageWriter 2000.
The U.S. Secret Service protected David Palmer during the assassination attempt at the Santa Clarita Power Plant. The file gives the history of the organization from its establishment in 1865, their original mandate of investigating fraud and currency counterfeiting, and their responsibility of protecting Presidents since 1902.
Milo Pressman used wireless tracing to locate Teri Bauer's location at the Gaines compound. The file explains that with the advent of mobile technology, 911 responders were unable to locate callers and so the FCC ordered wireless providers to deliver their customers' locations. It goes on to describe the privacy concerns of such technology.
Ted Cofell had a Microtech H.A.L.O. II knife in his car to defend himself from Jack Bauer. The file calls it the epitome of OTF automatic knives, and gives examples of other films it has been seen in. It then gives the history of the different versions of the HALO, and describes its Kydex sheath.
Jack used a Global Positioning System device when infiltrating the Gaines compound. The file for this episode explains the introduction of the Navstar satellite in 1993 and the advent of GPS capabilities, as well as how the signals work and the controversies surrounding the technology.
Belgrade was the location of Luca Univox, a holding company that was linked to Jamey Farrell's financial records. The research file explains it is the capital of Serbia and Yugoslavia, and gives a brief history of Slobodan Milošević's rise to power and the Yugoslav Wars.
Dr Rose Kent gave Teri Bauer an ultrasound at Grace Memorial Hospital. The file explains the technology and its uses in SONAR and medicine. It also gives the history of its use in medicine since World War II, and Dr. Karl Dussik's publication on ultrasonography.
Milo Pressman opened up some sockets to MI5 to help Robert Ellis produce a report on Operation Nightfall. The research file gives the history of MI5 since its inception in 1909, and describes its relationship with the other British intelligence services, the SIS and GCHQ. It also describes MI5's mandate and regulation by law.
The Griffith Observatory is where Keith Palmer met Carl Webb to discuss the death of George Ferragamo. The file gives the history of the site, as well as a description of its layout, and who owns it. It also talks about the other films and TV shows that have filmed there, including Rebel Without A Cause.
CTU used fiber optics to surveil the sting operation involving Elizabeth Nash and Alexis Drazen. The file describes what fiber optics are, and how the physics behind them works. It goes on to explain they are made out of glass drawn into thin strands, and they are used for surveillance as well as medicine.
Phil Parslow diagnosed Teri Bauer with dissociative amnesia as the cause of her memory loss. The file describes dissociative disorders and explains how they are thought to stem from trauma as a coping mechanism. It then describes several subtypes of dissociative amnesia.
Alan Morgan was paid to cut off a section of the power grid for Alexis Drazen. the research file explains how the power grid is the network of transmission lines that provides electricity for the US and Canada. It then gives detail on the different sections of the power grid, how the science works and the grid's substations and control stations.
Mark DeSalvo headed an underground detention facilities that was scheduled to house Victor Drazen. The file gives the history of underground prisons in foreign countries such as Vietnam, Iraq and Syria. It then goes on to give examples of non-prison underground facilities used by the US military.
Day 1 took place on Super Tuesday when David Palmer was running as a Democratic candidate. The file explains how presidential primaries work, when the 2000 Super Tuesday fell and the criticisms and values of the primary system.
David Palmer and George Mason debated the purview of CTU when Palmer convinced him to trade Alexis Drazen for Jack Bauer. The file explains that CTU is a fictional agency but some real federal agencies do fall under Senate purview. It then describes the purview of the CIA and the FBI.
The Drazens held Kim Bauer hostage at the Port of Los Angeles before they attempted to leave the country. The file gives the port's location in San Pedro, 20 miles south of Downtown LA, and describes the history of the port since its establishment in 1907. It also explains the port's trade activity.
Jack spoke with an officer of the United States Coast Guard after the shootout at the dock. The research file gives a description of the service, how they operate under the Department of Transportation during peace and the US Navy during war, and their different tasks and responsibilities.
Eric Rayburn set up a meeting with the Joint Chiefs of Staff against Palmer's wishes. The file describes the history of the Joint Chiefs from their beginnings at the start of World War II and formal establishment in 1947. It also describes who makes up the Joint Chiefs and their responsibilities.
David Palmer raised the alert conditions to red, which caught the attention of reporter Ron Wieland. The research file gives the history of the alert condition system from March 2002, and explains the different levels in use currently. It also talks about the previous system of LERTCONs, DEFCONs and EMERGCONs used during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
George Mason was exposed to plutonium at the terrorist warehouse in Panorama City. The research file describes how plutonium emits alpha radiation and low energy x-rays which are only harmful inside the body. It goes on to describe the effects of plutonium damage but how there are other more dangerous materials.
Dr Kinnardreported the abuse of Megan Matheson to the police after she discovered signs of it at St. Virgil's Hospital. The file details how every state and the District of Columbia have laws about reporting child abuse and the designated mandatory reporters. It also details how to report any suspected child abuse and gives the National Child Abuse Hotline.
Sharing U.S. intelligence in the face of terrorism
Ambassador Shareef requested that David Palmershare U.S. intelligence to help stop the Second Wave attack. The file details how this works since September 11, how countries reciprocate, what information can be derived from it and what questions are raised about the security of such arrangements.
A Presidential pardon was given to Nina Myers in exchange for information about Second Wave. The file explains how under Article II, Section 2 of the Constitution, the President has this power, and the history of it coming about. It also explains the power of sentence reductions, and the Pardon Clerk office.
Mike Novick explained executive privilege to David Palmer as a precedent for the detainment of Ron Wieland. The file describes how executive privilege is not mentioned in the constitution but many Presidents have been allowed to use unchecked powers. It mentions the history of democratic governments as well as historic cases such ad George Washington and Richard Nixon.
ASCII code was the research file for episode 8, although it does not seem to be related to any part of the story. The file explains how ASCII code works by assigning a binary number to each character, and how the extended code includes mathematical symbols. It also describes the history of its introduction in the 1960s and Robert W. Bemer's contribution.
The airplane carrying Jack Bauer and Nina Myers crash landed with 3 survivors. The research file gives 17 tips recommended by airline experts on how to survive on an airplane: the tips include seat belt use, flight attendants' safety briefings, not drinking too much alcohol, which materials are best to wear to avoid fire damage, and the "brace" position.
Tom Baker used infrared imaging at 18 Starling Court before the CTU raid on the house. The file describes that infrared is heat radiation emitted by any object with a temperature above absolute zero. It also talks about how heat is created on the molecular level, and human emission of infrared. It also gives the color code of infrared imaging.
When entering the mosque to identify Syed Ali, Kate Warner used a hijab to cover her face. The file explains what a hijab is and the background of Muslim women who wear them. It also gives the basis of hijab from the Hadith, rather than the Quran, and explains the guidelines for how women and men should dress in Muslim culture.
Al-Fulani was the Imam of the mosque that Syed Ali was praying at before he was cornered and captured by CTU. The file describes the role of an Imam for Sunni Muslims, needing no ordination, and also the role for Shi'ite Muslims, in which Imams have secret knowledge of God and creation and are appointed by God.
Brian Pierson used a UV light to detect the footprints of the Coral Snake commandos at Norton Airfield. The research file describes how UV light is a valuable tool in forensic investigation, and as well as being used for fingerprint and footprint identification, the file also gives many other uses such as detecting bomb making materials, rape semen or marked ransom money.
Lonnie McRae had an extensive collection of fallout shelter supplies in the bunker beneath his cabin. The file mainly describes fallout shelters, explaining what they are and the minimum amount of fresh air needed for them. It also describes what lighting they need, how they must avoid utility lines and how much drinking water is needed per occupant.
A Nuclear Emergency Support Team attempted to defuse the nuclear bomb at Norton Airfield. The research file describes their founding in 1974 after a bomb scare in Boston, how many members they have and their responsibilities. It then goes on to describe how they detect credible nuclear threats, and what equipment they use to dismantle nuclear devices.
CTU agent Gibson used audio authentication to verify that the Cyprus recording implicated three Middle Eastern countries in the Second Wave bombing. The file gives details on the process of audio authentication, from examining anomalies in the audio to inspecting the physical media for tampering, and using computer equipment for spectrum analysis.
Vice PresidentJames Prescott used a Videophone to communicate with David Palmer from Washington, D.C. The file describes portable suitcase videophones that were used by reporters covering the 2003 War in Iraq. It explains how they work with satellites and how they are of little use inside the United States, as well as including a story of a reporter filming a US spy plane crew in China.
Mike Novick reminded David Palmer of the Posse Comitatus Act when Palmer ordered him to use the army to quell riots in Georgia. The file gives the history of the introduction of the act in 1878, how it stops the use of armed forces for law enforcement, and the amendment of the law in 1981 for drug interdictions. It also explains how the Coast Guard and National Guard are not subject to the act.
Ronnie Stark used a stun gun to torture Jack Bauer, and a taser to incapacitate him when he was captured. The file talks about the development of stun gun technology in the 1970s, and the popular taser variant that shoots electrodes at a distance. It gives the advantages and disadvantages of tasers, and explains how they can be misused and how law enforcement officers defend their use.
Raymond O'Hara used Epinephrine to resuscitate Jack Bauer after his heart stopped, and Beroglide to paralyse his diaphragm to torture him. The research file gives detail on Epinephrine (or adrenaline) and how it is naturally secreted by the adrenal gland, and its medical uses to stimulate heart rate and treat other conditions. It then notes that Beroglide is a fictional drug.
James Prescott invoked the 25th Amendment in order to unseat David Palmer from the Presidency. The research file explains the introduction of the Amendment due to Kennedy's death in 1965 and a second clause added in 1967 to address the Vice Presidency. It also states the 4 provisions of the Amendment and the history of its use.
Alex Hewitt had a tarball on a hidden external hard drive in his apartment that he decompressed in order to rebuild his files. The file explains that a tarball is a jargon term for a tar archive and details how the .tar archiving system works. It also gives a quick history of their use throughout the 1980s and the term becoming more commonplace in the 90s.
Jack Bauer used Hewitt's voice generator program during a call with Peter Kingsley. The research file talks about the software "Natural Voices", a computer speech system from AT&T, introduced in 2001. It explains what the software can do, how it will lead to use on mobile devices, and which customers use it.
Sherry Palmer met Peter Kingsley at the Los Angeles Coliseum during a sting operation to prove the Cyprus recording was false. The file gives the history of the stadium, and which teams have played there and what events have been held there. It also explains that in 1984 the site was designated a State and National Historical Landmark.
The threat introduced in Season 3 was a bioterrorist virus. The file describes how the Cordilla Virus is a fictional strain similar to the Hantavirus, which causes HPS. It describes how Hantaviruses are carried by rodents and describes the symptoms, before explaining about Centers for Disease Control and "Category A" viruses.
Sunny Macer enacted a Bioterrorist incident protocol when the threat was discovered. The file explain that the FBI is designated to co-ordinate suspected incidents of bioterrorism, and a State Health Official is in charge of 24/7 response. It also describes how local health care workers look out for unusual diseases and notify the State Health Department and CDC.
Jack Bauer showed symptoms of heroin withdrawal that were noticed by Nicole Duncan. The file describes the symptoms of withdrawal, and the timescales of when they manifest and peak. It explains how it can sometimes be fatal, and describes symptoms of overdose. Lastly, there is mention of heroin causing depression.
Ramon Salazar was held in a detention center before Jack got him out. The file for this episode talks about the Federal Bureau of Prisons' institutions with different security levels based on presence of external patrols, gun towers, staff-to-inmate ratio and other factors. It also talks about the Metropolitan Detention Center in downtown LA, and how it would hold someone like Salazar.
Jack and Salazar are forced by Peel to play Russian roulette. The file describes it as a "grim game of chicken", and goes through the rules. It then gives the first known references to Russian roulette from fiction; and explains that there is not much historical evidence to suggest that actual Russian soldiers ever played the game. It gives a link to an American gun safety website for further safe gun practices.
Palmer and Keeler participated in the Presidential debates on Day 3. The file explains that they are a modern television age creation, and the history of Presidential campaigns including the debate between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas. It also talks about the 1960 debates, and what has happened since 1976.
Hector Salazar's base of operations was in Las Nieves, Mexico. The file briefly describes how Las Nieves is a small town in the state of Durango, close to the California border, sitting just south of the state of Chihuahua. There is a map accompanying the text, illustrating the town's location.
CTU used a topographic overlay to look for possible landing sites that Chase may have used. The file explains what topography is, and how overlays use symbols and coloring to show elevation and terrain shape. It describes how both natural and human-features are indicated.
Alan Milliken made significant campaign contributions to David Palmer's run for re-election. The file outlines the Federal Election Campaign laws on individuals donating to campaigns, and how national banks, corporations and labor oranizations are forbidden from contributing. It also discusses PACs.
After taking a gunshot wound to the hand, Chase Edmunds was forced to cauterize his wound with a poker. The file describes how throughout history intense heat was used to stop bleeding, and how the blood vessels shrink and clot. The file also explains about electrocautery and advice given in a 1926 American Red Cross guide to cauterizing with gunpowder.
Michael Amador had a Swiss bank account that Nina Myers transferred money into. The file explains that they are useful for keeping your financial status a secret, and Swiss law differs from American law to keep the details of account holders confidential. It mentions the exceptions to these laws and the tax charged on interest.
Nina Myers used a spectroscope to verify that the virus was real from Amador. The file explains about laser light and the Raman spectrum to identify molecules in objects or gas. It describes what a spectroscope does and how researchers use them to study living cells.
Nina gave Jack instructions on how to speak to Marcus Alvers on an internet socket using voice over internet protocol. The file explains how analog voice signal is converted to digital to be transported over the internet rather than the public switched telephone network. It mentions that VoIP is gaining popularity, although reliability and sound quality is currently limited.
Alan Milliken suffered from angina, needing medication to treat his heart. The file explains that angina is chest pain that warns of an impending heart attack, due to the heart not receiving enough oxygen. It describes the symptoms of angina, before explaining the differences between stable and unstable angina.
CTU discovered that Stephen Saunders was using stolen Soviet biowarfare devices to deliver the virus. The file describes the Soviet Union's 1979 breaking of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention when anthrax spores were accidentally released. It goes on to talk about Vladimir Pasechnik's defection to Britain and his explanation of the Soviet biowarfare program.
Gael Ortega's symptoms indicated that the Cordilla virus's incubation period was lower than predicted. The file explains that an incubation period is the amount of time between infection and the start of symptoms, and goes on to list the incubation periods of several diseases including SARS, Ebola, smallpox and influenza.
Marcus Alvers told Michelle Dessler that he met his employer Steven Saunders in a Go parlor in Chinatown. The file explains that Go is a Chinese board game developed thousands of years ago, consisting of a grid of 19 vertical and horizontal lines and 361 black and white stones. The file explains that the aim of the game is to acquire territory by surrounding adjacent areas.
Sunny Macer offered suicide capsules to the infected residents of the Chandler Plaza Hotel. The file explains that field agents and military personnel carry them in case they are captured. It describes how the CIA experimented with saxitoxin in the 1950s, but in 1970 Richard Nixon ordered the destruction of their stocks of it.
Jane Saunders was working at the UC Santa Barbara library when she was taken by CTU. The file mentions the two libraries at UCSB, the Donald C. Davidson Library and the Arts Library. It explains the history of the former library and mentions that they contain 2.6 million volumes and server 18,800 students.
Tony Almeida gave Agent Baker a code 9 in order to move his unit away from the rear of Stephen Saunders's building. The file explains that police transmissions use codes corresponding to different crimes, though they are not standardized across different cities. It mentions that code 9 could mean a jail break, a road block or that summer uniform is enacted.
Chloe O'Brian used the carrier signal of a recording to track Stephen Saunders's location for Tony Almeida. The file explains that a carrier signal is a specific frequency in a communications channel used to carry information - and gives examples of cell phones, AM and FM radio, explaining that turning a radio dial is selecting a carrier frequency.
Two F/A-18 Hornets intercepted Stephen Saunders's helicopter and blew it up, stopping him from escaping. The file explains that they are all-weather aircraft used for air-to-air or air-to-ground assault, and talks about their use in Operation Desert Storm. It goes on to say that the F/A-18 is currently in use by the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps, as well as the air forces of Canada, Australia, Spain, Kuwait, Finland, Switzerland, and Malaysia.
Jack Bauer and Chase Edmunds tracked Arthur Rabens to the Los Angeles Subway. The file explains that Los Angeles streetcar lines were closed down by 1963, and in the 80s a network of metro and light rail lines were built. It describes the only underground subway, the Red Line, and talks about the design of the stations and how they were built to resist earthquakes of 7.5 degrees.
Chase Edmunds has his amputated hand reattached by surgeons at the end of Day 3. The file says that the biggest risk is infection of the limb, and then details the procedure of reconnecting blood vessels, as well as the period of rehabilitation needed and further surgery. It explains that nerve regeneration is a gradual process and the ability to use a limb can take a long time.
James Heller was the Secretary of Defense, who was kidnapped at the start of Day 4. The file explains what the Secretary of Defense is responsible for, serving under the President, and describes the different areas of the military under the SecDef's purview. It mentions that he is responsible for 2.3 million military and 700,000 civilian employees.
Omar broadcast a hostage video of Heller across the internet. The file mentions that Iraqi hostage videos have been shown on Al-Jazeera TV during the Iraq war, and goes on to describe several specific videos that have been shown: a Polish hostage, a Japanese hostage, and American contractor, Humanitarian worker Margaret Hassan, American businessmen Nick Berg and Paul Johnson, and Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl.
Chloe O'Brian used Caltrans traffic cameras to watch Andrew Paige's torture. The file explains that the California Department of Transportation has over 400 cameras, and their picture is beamed to traffic management centers to verify incidents. It mentions that the footage can only be used for traffic management, and not for law enforcement.
Audrey Raines asked her captors to give her father access to nitroglycerin for his heart condition. The file says it is used to treat angina, which occurs when coronary arteries become too restricted. It explains that nitroglycerin works by widening the blood vessels to the heart.
Maya Driscoll was prescribed Thorazine for her schizophrenia. The file explains that it is a low-potency drug that helps control hallucinations and delusions. It mentions that it is also prescribed to treat extreme behavorial disorders in children and manic-depressive illness. It warns that Thorazine should not be taken in conjunction with alcohol, barbiturates or narcotics.
Curtis Manning used sensory disorientation techniques to interrogate Richard Heller, much to the outrage of his father. The file describes how SDT has been used in alternative medicine, torture and psychological experimentation. It gives the definition as the reduction of sensory input, and gives a range of techniques. It ends by mentioning its use in the prisons of Abu Ghraib, and the debate around whether it breaches the Geneva Convention on torture.
Maya Driscoll was given Haldol by Mark Kaylis, despite having an allergy to it. The file describes Haloperidol as an anti-psychotic drug used in the treatment of schizophrenia and other nervous conditions. It describes how it works by blocking receptors in the brain, counteracting the overactivity of dopamine. It mentions some side effects, including involuntary movement and dizziness.
Dr. MartinezreportedDina Araz's gunshot wound to the police. The file explains that statutes in almost all U.S. states require healthcare professionals to report gunshot wounds within 24 hours, or face criminal charges. It also explains the debate around the issue, as often they are not held liable for failing to disclose other information that could indicate illegal activity.
Dina and Behrooz Araz were not on any terrorist watchlists as of Day 4. The file describes the consolidation of all agencies' watchlist into a single database in 2003, and the establishment of the Terrorist Screening Center, supporting thousands of screeners across the country. It explains how police officers are able to check names against the watchlist during routine interactions.
Marianne Taylor's computer at the Rockland Building was protected by fingerprint encryption. The file expands upon biometrics, its role in technology and its use as an authentication mechanism. It claims that fingerprints are one of the oldest method of verification due to their uniqueness, although damage to fingers can render readings invalid.
Habib Marwan joined one of his terrorist cells at the Rockland Building. The file defines cells as independent groups of terrorists who do not know each other. It describes planning or support cells and sleeper cells, mentioning the Al Qaeda training manual's emphasis on blending into the environment. It then describes execution cells, who carry out the final plan.
McLennen-Forster set off an EMP from the basement of their building. The file describes eelectromagnetic pulses as shockwaves that can overwhelm electronic circuitry, and the effect they have on electrical devices. It mentions other systems vulnerable to EMP, and describes their effect in warfare as non-lethal but highly destructive. It goes on to mention that a nuclear bomb would cause an EMP effect.
Specter and his commandos used night vision to track down Jack Bauer and Paul Raines. The file explains that night vision amplifies existing light and projects an electronic image to the user. It then goes into technical detail of how light strikes a photo cathode, is sent across a vacuum and hits a phosphor screen - green being used as the human eye can distinguish different shades the best. It mentions how they can be damaged by bright lights.
Baron used a mobile parabolic microphone to surveil Jack and Dina's sting operation. The file describes how they use concave reflectors and need to be directed towards the source of the sound, potentially picking up sound from 150 feet away. They are not used for standard recording as they do not pick up low frequencies, but are commonly used in espionage and law enforcement.
Behrooz Araz is fitted with an implanted tracking device. The file says that implant technology normally used in animals has been adapted for use in humans to track criminals or lost children. It also describes their medical use, for monitoring vital bodily functions, and mentions protest groups who oppose them.
Mitch Anderson uses a stealth bomber to destroy Air Force One. The file concerns itself with the F-117A Nighthawk, explaining that it does not use radar, instead using GPS navigation, and is only used in night missions. It says that although it has an F designation, it is primarily a ground attack aircraft, then that they cost $45 million each and that there are 55 in use.
Jack Bauer races to recover the nuclear football. The file describes a leather briefcase containing the launch codes and Gold Codes, whose name is unknown but is nicknamed the "football". It says it contains a SATCOM radio and is guarded by "Yankee White". It came about during the Kennedy era and the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Habib Marwan's men steal a transported nuclear warhead in Iowa. The file talks about the Office of Transportation and Safeguards, based in Albuquerque, who transport energy department cargo. It describes their vehicles' safety measures, including rugged design, armed federal agents, and equipment to ensure their security.
Hyocine-Pentothal is made up for the show, but the name comes from those of the drugs Hyoscine and Sodium Penthothal which have been used as "truth serums". Jack used Hyocine-Pentothal to torture Graem, and after he finally broke, Phillip Bauer ended up overdosing Graem on it, killing him.
Air Force Two refers to the plane carrying the Vice President at the present time. It does not necessarily refer to any one particular plane. Following the attempt on President Wayne Palmer, VP Noah Daniels is teleconferenced from Air Force Two to replace him.